Electric Vehicles

Abstract – This paper gives a mini overview of the recent research and works in the sector of electric vehicles. The paper describes the main part of electric vehicles and their work. The major components are battery, motor, charger, steering, and braking. The paper finally shows basic concepts of electric vehicles with working. There are electric buses in the main focus of this paper. The solar system also can be used for electric busses and this is described in this paper.

Keywords – Electric vehicle, motor, braking system, battery systems, hybrid system

 I.   INTRODUCTION

Electrical vehicle (EV) based on electro mechanical system. No, any internal combustion engine is used for torque development. All the power which is used is electric power as the energy source. In the electric vehicle main power source is electricity which is stored in the battery. The advantage of the highly efficient in power conversion through its proposition system of electric motor. Now in the world, there are several situations in which we cannot tolerate the environment that why we need to reduce carbon emission. In the sector of the automobile, there is a lot of petroleum used and therefore a lot of carbon emissions are occurring in the environment [1]. Electric busses work on the electricity from the power grid and also can work on the solar plates. There is a battery that can be charged and then used. All the car manufacturers have to develop at least one model in hybrid electric vehicles for the reduction in the carbon footprint. France and Japan are the countries who totally close the production of petrol vehicles by 2030. This is one more step toward pollution control and the improvement in electrical vehicles for a clean environment [2]. The table shows the various types of EVs. Image 1 shows the first electric vehicle in 1943-35 (America).

Types of EVs

Hybrid EVs

Battery EVs

Fuel Cell EVs

Solar Cell

Energy System

Battery

Ultra-Capacitor

ICE Generator Unit

Battery

Ultra-Capacitor

Fuel Cell

Solar Cell

Propulsion

Electric motor drive

Internal combustion engines

Electric motor drives 

Electric motor drives 

Electric motor drives 

Major issues

Managing multiple energy sources

Battery and battery management

Fuel cell cost

Fuel processor

Solar Cell cost

                                                                         Table 1

An electric bus is a vehicle that is powered by electrical power. The electric bus can be operated by direct electricity by external sources or by a battery storage system.  It has lower operating costs as compared to fuel operated buses. It is nearly 2 to 3 times cheaper to power vehicles as compared to diesel or petrol vehicles. Electricity price is more stable as compared to gas or liquid fuel. For transportation, there are many options but there is maximum use of buses and this will directly affect the environment by producing carbon. With the help of electric buses, we can reduce carbon emission and also reduce the consumption of limited energy sources like petrol and diesel.



II.  MAIN COMPONENTS

There are many components in electric vehicles, some main ones are spark ignited, traction system, thermal cooling system, DC/DC converter, power electronics control, battery, motor, storage, braking system etc. [3]. Image 2 shows the main components of the electric busses. There are various parts with different function and working shown in the figure.

DC to DC converter: A full-bridge DC/DC converter is the frequently implemented converter for fuel-cell power conditioning when electrical isolation is needed. Full bridge DC to DC converter is suitable for high-power electrical transmission because switch voltage is not high and current are also not high [3,5]. 

Electric Motor Generator: Electric vehicle drive system for plug-in hybrid vehicles the integrated motor-generator set provides electric propulsion for the vehicle in its function as a motor, while work as a generator it converts mechanical braking energy into electrical energy, that is college regenerative braking system. 

Regenerative Braking system: In the battery-powered electric vehicle system, regenerative braking is the conversion of the electric vehicle's kinetic energy into chemical energy stored in the electric battery system, where it can be used to drive the vehicle.  

Recharge Station: In these stations, busses can be charged by an electrical charging system and it will convert electrical supply power into battery storage power.

Battery Packs: In this battery packs are arranged and this will provide the power to the motor. Which can be charged by the recharge station. The capacity of the battery is for the 120 km distance which can be charged in 1.5 hours (nearly).

Solar Cell: Solar cells can be used in an emergency for electric busses. When there is charging not available cell can work for small distances. It can be mounted on the top of the buses and it will charge through the solar system. There is a lot of space on the bus which can be utilized. The solar cell efficiency formula is shown below.  

 

III.  The Motor

There are a number of motors available for electric vehicles: DC motors, Induction motors, DC brushless motors, Permanent magnetic synchronous motors and Switched reluctance motors.

 

1. DC motors: DC motor work on the DC supply and Fleming's left-hand rule is applicable for the rotation of that. It has been used in motor control for a long time. In this electromechanical conversion is transferred to the rotor through stationary brushes [11]. However, it is suitable for electrical vehicle low power applications. It has found that applications in electric wheel-chair, transporter and micro-car, and buses. Today, various places and machines are using DC motors. The power level is less than 5kW. In the electric busses, we can use this motor and it gives good efficiency. Torque development in DC motor can be shown in the below equation.

1.   2. Induction motor: It’s a very popular Alternate Current motor. It also has a large market share in controlled speed drive applications such as AC, elevator, or escalator. There are various higher power electric vehicles, for more than 10kW. 

1.    3. DC brushless motor: The conventional Direct Current motor is poor in construction because of the low power winding of the field, is stationary while the main high-power copper winding rotates. The Direct Current brushless motor is "turned inside out. The high-power copper winding is put on the stationary side of the motor and the field excitation is on the rotor using a permanent magnet rotor [12]. The motor has a longer lifetime than the DC motor but is a few times more expensive. This specification is suitable for electric vehicle applications and other applications.

4. Permanent magnetic synchronous motor: In this type of motor stator is similar to that of an induction type motor. The rotor is mounted with permanent electromagnets. It is similar to an induction type motor but the air-gap filed is produced by a permanent electromagnet which is placed in it. This motor is also suitable for electric and hybrid vehicles.

 

5.  Switched reluctance motor: This motor specification is also good for the use of electric and hybrid vehicles. It has variable reluctance that why this machine [14]. 

IV.  Conclusion

This paper discusses the basics of electric vehicles and the development of electric vehicles, especially electric buses. The electric vehicle is very useful for the reduction of carbon emission and the change of climate. Consumption of petroleum is also reduced due to the use of that. The paper first describes the main components of electric vehicles, it then extends the description of the components with uses.  The paper provides a mini overview of electric vehicles.  

Acknowledgment
The author acknowledges the support of various references which is very useful for this paper.

References
[1] Chikhi, F. El Hadri, A. Cadiou, J.C. “ ABS control design based on wheel-slip peak localization”. Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Robot Motion and Control, Publication Date: 23-25 June 2005, pp.73- 77  URL: http://sersc.org/journals/index.php/IJAST/article/download/14920/7565/
[2] Beier, J. et  al, “Integrating on-site Renewable Electricity Generation into a Manufacturing System with Intermittent Battery Storage from Electric Vehicles”, Procedia CIRP, Vol. 48, 2016, pp. 483-488.
[3] Rahman, K.M.; Fahimi, B.; Suresh, G.; Rajarathnam, A.V.; Ehsani, M., “Advantages of switched reluctance motor applications to EV and HEV: design and control issues”, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 36, Issue 1, Jan.-Feb. 2000, pp. 111 – 121.
[4] K W E Cheng; “Recent Development on Electric Vehicles”, 3rd International Conference on Power Electronics system and it's application, 2009
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[6] Chan, C.C. (1996), Chau, K.T., Jiang, J.Z., Xia, W., Zhu, M., and Zhang, R., Novel permanent magnet motor drives for electric vehicles. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 43, pp. 331-339.
[7] B Smith, M. and J. Castellano. 2015. “Costs Associated with Non-Residential Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment.”
[8] C Clint, J., B. Gamboa, B. Henzie, and A. Karasawa. 2015. “Considerations for Corridor Direct Current Fast Charging Infrastructure in California.”
[9] Chan, C.C., Jiang, J.Z., Chen, G.H., and Chau, K.T., Computer simulation and analysis of a new polyphase multipole motor drive. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 40, 1993, pp. 570-576.
[10] Zhan, Y.J., Chan, C.C., and Chau K.T., A novel sliding-mode observer for indirect position sensing of switched reluctance motor drives, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 46, 1999, pp. 390-397.
[11] Nunes, P., M.C. Brito and T. Farias, “Synergies between electric vehicles and solar electricity penetrations in Portugal,” 2013 World Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition, 2013, pp. 1-8.
[12] Mwasilu, F. et  al., “Electric vehicles and smart grid interaction: A review on vehicle to grid and renewable energy sources integration”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 34, 2014, pp. 501-516
[13] Ates, M.N. et al., “In Situ Formed Layered-Layered Metal Oxide as Bifunctional Catalyst for Li-Air Batteries”, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, Vol 163, No. 10, 2016, pp. A2464-A2474
[14] Tuffner, F. and M. Kintner-Meyer, Using Electric Vehicles to Meet Balancing Requirements Associated with Wind Power, U.S. Department of Energy Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 2011

Author

Abhas Kumar Singh was born in Ambikapur (Surguja) Chhattishgarh, India. He received the 3 Year Diploma in Electrical Engg. from Govt. Polytechnic College Ambikapur India, in 2007 and the B.Tech. degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering from Shri Shankaracharya College of Engg. & Tech. Bhilai, India, in 2010. He did M. Tech. in Power System from the National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur, Himachal Pradesh, India. He has published a number of research papers in various journals and conferences. He also published a book. He is a Life member of ISROSET, a Member of IAENG, a Member of IACSIT, and a reviewer of many international journals. He is awarded the young scientist award in Nov 2020 by VDGOOD Professional Association.  

 

 


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